9 de julio de 2013 Día 171 del quinto año - Historia

9 de julio de 2013 Día 171 del quinto año - Historia


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El presidente Barack Obama saluda a los jóvenes reporteros en la Cena de Estado para Niños en el Salón Este de la Casa Blanca, 9 de julio de 2013

9:30 AM EL PRESIDENTE recibe la Sesión informativa diaria presidencial
Oficina Oval

10:30 AM EL PRESIDENTE se reúne con miembros del Caucus Negro del Congreso
Edificio de oficinas ejecutivas de Eisenhower

2:35 PM EL PRESIDENTE se reúne con el Secretario del Tesoro Lew
Oficina Oval

4:30 PM EL PRESIDENTE se reúne con el Secretario de Defensa Hagel
Sala de Situación


Acontecimientos históricos en 1971

    1er Campeonato de la NFC, Kezar Stadium, SF: Dallas Cowboys vencieron a los San Francisco 49ers, 17-10 Dr. Melvin H Evans inaugurado como primer gobernador electo de Virgin Is Ohio acuerda pagar $ 675,000 a los familiares de las víctimas de Kent State Veteran's Stadium de Filadelfia dedicado el primer día internacional, Australia v Inglaterra en el MCG Globetrotters pierden 100-99 ante los Rojos de Nueva Jersey, poniendo fin a la racha de 2.495 victorias consecutivas

Evento de Interesar

5 de enero El cuerpo del ex campeón mundial de boxeo de peso pesado Charles & quotSonny & quot Liston (40) es encontrado por su esposa Geraldine en su casa de Las Vegas. Había estado muerto durante un estimado de 6 días.

    Los químicos de Berkeley anuncian las primeras hormonas de crecimiento sintéticas Cecil Partee elegido presidente interino del senado del estado de Illinois

Música Concierto

6 de enero Neil Young regresa a su tierra natal de Canadá para su primer concierto allí desde sus días previos al estrellato.

    -40 ° F (-40 ° C) en Hawley Lake, Arizona (récord estatal) 29 ballenas piloto en la playa y mueren en San Clemente Island, California Voyageurs National Park, Minn, establecido & quotLovely Ladies, Kind Gentlemen & quot; cierra en Majestic NYC después de 19 Actuaciones & quotLight, Lively & amp Yiddish & quot se cierra en Belasco Theatre NYC después de 87 representaciones El Premio Bollingen de poesía otorgado a Richard Wilbur El Ejército Republicano Irlandés (IRA) lleva a cabo un 'ataque de castigo', tarring y emplumado 4 hombres acusados ​​de actividades delictivas en Belfast Tigers as relevista John Hiller, de 27 años, sufre un ataque cardíaco, pero luego hace un notable regreso al récord de 38 salvamentos. & QuotAll in the Family & quot; se estrena en CBS con la primera descarga del inodoro en la televisión & quot; Pronto & quot se abre en el Ritz Theatre NYC para 3 presentaciones que organiza el Congressional Black Caucus.

Evento de Interesar

12 de enero, el gran jurado federal de EE. UU. Acusa al reverendo Philip Berrigan y a otras 5 personas, incluida una monja y 2 sacerdotes, por cargos de conspirar para secuestrar a Henry Kissinger

    Las negociaciones sobre el precio del petróleo comienzan en Teherán entre 6 estados del Golfo Pérsico de la OPEP y 22 compañías petroleras 2 bombas estallan en la casa del secretario de Empleo del Reino Unido, Robert Carr

NBA All-Star Juego

12 de enero 21 ° Juego de Estrellas de la NBA, San Diego Sports Arena: Oeste vence a Este, 108-107 MVP: Lenny Wilkens, Seattle SuperSonics, el MVP más antiguo de PG en la historia del Juego de Estrellas (33) anota 21 puntos

Evento de Interesar

13 de enero En un intercambio de alto perfil de la NHL, los Montreal Canadiens obtienen al futuro ala izquierda del Salón de la Fama del Hockey Frank Mahovlich de Detroit, a cambio de Bill Collins, Guy Charron y Mickey Redmond

    John Snow lleva 7-40 para Inglaterra para vencer a Australia por 299 carreras & quotAri & quot abre en Mark Hellinger Theatre NYC para 19 presentaciones

Música Soltero

15 de enero George Harrison lanza el sencillo & quotMy Sweet Lord & quot en el Reino Unido

Mundo Registro

16 de enero Ard Schenk patina récord mundial 1500m (1: 58.7)

    Super Bowl V, Miami Orange Bowl, Miami, FL: Baltimore Colts vencen a los Dallas Cowboys, 16-13 MVP: Chuck Howley, Dallas, LB En una conferencia del partido en Dublín, el Sinn Féin pone fin a su política abstencionista de 65 años y acuerda que cualquier representante electo podría ocupar su asiento en el Dáil Ivan Koloff vence a Bruno Sammartino en Nueva York, para convertirse en campeón de la WWF

Cita de interés

18 de enero El primer ministro de Irlanda del Norte, James Chichester-Clark, se reúne con el ministro del Interior británico, Reginald Maudling

NHL All-Star Juego

19 de enero 24 ° Juego de Estrellas de la NHL, Boston Garden: División Oeste vence a División Este, 2-1 MVP: Bobby Hull, Chicago, LW

Evento de Interesar

19 de enero se toca & quotHelter Skelter & quot de los Beatles en el juicio de Charles Manson

    La Asociación de Escritores de la NHL pasó a llamarse Asociación de Escritores Profesionales de Hockey Ard Schenk patina el récord mundial 1000m (1: 18.8)

Cita de interés

Música Soltero

20 de enero se lanza el sencillo & quotWhat's Going On & quot de Marvin Gaye sobre la brutalidad policial

Música Grabación

22 de enero John Lennon y Plastic Ono Band graban & quotPower to the People & quot en su Ascot Sound Studio

    -80 ° F (-62 ° C) en Prospect Creek Camp, Alaska (récord de EE. UU.) Cuarto Juego de Estrellas de la ABA: East 126 vence a West 122 en Carolina UCLA pierde ante Notre Dame, UCLA luego gana los siguientes 88 juegos seguidos Disturbios Estallar en la zona de Shankill Road de Belfast, Irlanda del Norte

Golpe de Estado

25 de enero Golpe militar en Uganda bajo el mando del general de división Idi Amin

Evento de Interesar

25 de enero Primera huelga de prueba del dólar de Eisenhower en la Casa de la Moneda de Filadelfia

    El canal 40 de WHMB TV en Indianápolis, IN (IND) comienza a transmitir Los 170 delegados del Consejo Unionista del Ulster (UUC) piden la renuncia del primer ministro de Irlanda del Norte, James Chichester-Clark, la segunda cámara holandesa acepta la ley contra la limitación de los crímenes de guerra Montgomery St Station , último enlace en Bay Area Rapid Transit en San Francisco, 'holed thru' El cuerpo de un hombre que había sido asesinado a tiros se encuentra en Belfast 1971 NFL Draft: Jim Plunkett de la Universidad de Stanford, primera elección de los Patriotas de Nueva Inglaterra, debut en la prueba de Dennis Keith Lillee, v Inglaterra en Adelaide & quotAri & quot cierra en Mark Hellinger Theatre NYC después de 19 presentaciones Dennis Lillee obtiene 5-84 en su primera prueba de tazón, v Inglaterra UCLA inicia 88 racha ganadora de baloncesto & quotMy Sweet Lord & quot de George Harrison alcanza el # 1 en la lista de éxitos del Reino Unido Lanzamiento del Apolo 14, primer aterrizaje en las tierras altas lunares El Comité Especial de Veteranos agrega a 6 ex jugadores y 1 ejecutivo al Salón de la Fama del Béisbol: Dave Bancroft, Jake Beckley, Chick Hafey, Harry Hooper, Joe Kelley, Rube Marquard y George Weiss Campeonato de patinaje artístico femenino estadounidense ganado por Janet Lynn

Globos dorados

5 de febrero 28 Globos de Oro: & quotLove Story & quot, George C.Scott y Ali MacGraw ganan

    Primera vez que se golpea una pelota de golf en la Luna (por Alan Shepard) El ejército republicano irlandés dispara y mata al artillero Robert Curtis, el primer soldado británico en morir durante los 'Problemas' Bernard Watt (28), un civil católico, es asesinado a tiros por el ejército británico (BA) durante disturbios callejeros en Ardoyne, Belfast James Saunders (22), miembro del IRA, es asesinado a tiros por el ejército británico durante un tiroteo cerca de Oldpark Road, Belfast

Evento de Interesar

13 de febrero El vicepresidente de EE. UU., Spiro Agnew, golpea con 2 golpes de salida a la multitud mientras juega golf, hiriendo a 2


La Declaración de Derechos finalmente se ratifica

Tras la ratificación por parte del estado de Virginia, las primeras 10 enmiendas a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos, conocidas colectivamente como la Declaración de Derechos, se convierten en la ley del país.

En septiembre de 1789, el primer Congreso de los Estados Unidos aprobó 12 enmiendas a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos y las envió a los estados para su ratificación. Las enmiendas fueron diseñadas para proteger los derechos básicos de los ciudadanos estadounidenses, garantizando la libertad de expresión, prensa, reunión y ejercicio de la religión, el derecho a un procedimiento legal justo y a portar armas y que los poderes no delegados al gobierno federal estarían reservados para los estados y la gente.

Influenciado por la Declaración de Derechos inglesa de 1689, la Declaración de Derechos también se extrajo de la Declaración de Derechos de Virginia, redactada por George Mason en 1776. Mason, nativo de Virginia, fue un campeón de por vida de las libertades individuales, y en 1787 asistió a la Convención Constitucional y criticó el documento final por carecer de protección constitucional de los derechos políticos básicos. En la lucha por la ratificación que siguió, Mason y otros críticos acordaron apoyar la Constitución a cambio de la garantía de que las enmiendas se aprobarían de inmediato.

El 15 de diciembre de 1791, Virginia se convirtió en el décimo de 14 estados en aprobar 10 de las 12 enmiendas, dando así a la Declaración de Derechos la mayoría de las ratificaciones estatales necesarias para que sea legal. De las dos enmiendas no ratificadas, la primera se refería al sistema de representación de la población, mientras que la segunda prohibía que las leyes que variaban el pago de los miembros del Congreso entraran en vigor hasta que intervinieran las elecciones. La primera de estas dos enmiendas nunca fue ratificada, mientras que la segunda fue finalmente ratificada más de 200 años después, en 1992.


Mal uso de la tierra y los recursos

La forma en que se utiliza la tierra para producir alimentos puede tener un impacto enorme en el medio ambiente y su sostenibilidad. Y esto a menudo no tiene nada que ver con las poblaciones. Tome lo siguiente como ejemplo:

Las cadenas de comida chatarra, incluidas KFC y Pizza Hut, están siendo atacadas por los principales grupos ambientalistas en los Estados Unidos y otros países desarrollados debido a su impacto ambiental. La cría intensiva de ganado y aves de corral para estos restaurantes conduce a la deforestación, la degradación de la tierra y la contaminación de las fuentes de agua y otros recursos naturales. Por cada libra de carne roja, pollo, huevos y leche producida, los campos agrícolas pierden alrededor de cinco libras de tierra vegetal insustituible. El agua necesaria para la cría de carne llega a unos 190 galones por animal por día, o diez veces más de lo que se supone que usa una familia india normal en un día, si es que consigue agua.

... En general, las granjas de animales utilizan casi el 40 por ciento de la producción total de cereales del mundo. En los Estados Unidos, casi el 70 por ciento de la producción de cereales se destina al ganado.

… En la agricultura india, las mujeres utilizan hasta 150 especies diferentes de plantas (que la industria biotecnológica llamaría malas hierbas) como medicina, alimento o forraje. Para los más pobres, esta biodiversidad es el recurso más importante para la supervivencia. … Lo que es una mala hierba para Monsanto es una planta medicinal o alimento para la población rural.

Debido a que la agricultura industrial promueve el uso de monocultivos, en lugar de una diversidad de cultivos, la pérdida de biodiversidad está llevando a un mayor uso de recursos, como se describió anteriormente. Esto, así como otras situaciones políticas, como los motivos para arrojar los excedentes de alimentos a los países en desarrollo para vender menos a los agricultores locales, conduce a más hambre en todo el mundo.

Para obtener más información sobre cuestiones relacionadas con la tierra y el hambre, este sitio web ofrece secciones sobre:


9 de julio de 2013 Día 171 del quinto año - Historia

METAFONT (sistema informático). 2.

Tipo y tipo- cr fundación - Procesamiento de datos. I.

knuth / abcde.html> contiene información actual sobre este libro y libros relacionados. smallskip noindent Copyright $ copyright $ 1986 de la American Mathematical Society smallskip noindent Este libro es publicado conjuntamente por la American Mathematical Society y Addison kern.1em - Wesley Publishing Company. Reservados todos los derechos. % Ninguna parte de esta publicación puede ser reproducida, almacenada en% un sistema de recuperación o transmitida, en cualquier forma o por cualquier medio,% electrónico, mecánico, fotocopiado, grabación u otro, sin% el permiso previo por escrito de los editores. Impreso en los Estados Unidos de América. Esta publicación está protegida por derechos de autor, y se debe obtener permiso del editor antes de cualquier reproducción prohibida, almacenamiento en un

sistema de recuperación, o transmisión en cualquier forma o por cualquier medio, electrónico, mecánico, fotocopiado, grabación o similar. Para obtener información sobre permisos, formularios de solicitud y los contactos apropiados con el Departamento de Permisos y Derechos Globales de Pearson Education, visite < tt www.pearson.com/permissions/>. Impreso en los Estados Unidos de América. % Publicado simultáneamente en Canadá. medskip noindent% ISBN 0-201-13444-6 par% paperback% ISBN 0-201-13445-4 par% hardcover ISBN-13 enspace 978-0-201-13445-2 par noindent ISBN- 10 enspace phantom <978-> 0-201-13445-4 par noindent ISBN-13 enspace 978-0-201-13444-5 (suave) par noindent ISBN-10 enspace phantom <978 -> 0-201-13444-6 (suave) par% 11 12 13 14 15 16 - CRS - 07 06 05 04 03 02% rústica% 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 - CRS - 07 06 05 04 03 02 01% tapa dura smallskip noindent% Texto impreso en los Estados Unidos %% en Courier Westford en Westford, Massachusetts. Par noindent %% en LSC Communications en Crawfordsville, Indiana. Par noindent% en LSC Communications par noindent %% Octava impresión, febrero de 2012 par noindent% Decimocuarta impresión en tapa blanda, mayo de 2017 par noindent% 14 quad17% Novena impresión, noviembre de 2017 par noindent% 9 quad17 Décima impresión, febrero de 2021 par noindent smallskip font pearsonkluj = arial en 9pt leftline < pearsonkluj ScoutAutomatedPrintCode> ^^ ^^ | copyright | eject% dedicación titlepage vbox a 8pc <> rightline < strut eightssi A Hermann Zapf:> ^^ vskip2pt rightline < eightssi Cuyos trazos son los mejores> vfill eject% página en blanco titlepage null vfill eject% the preface titlepage def rhead vbox a 8pc < rightline < titlefont Preface> vss> < topskip 9pc% esto hace que el hundimiento sea igual en todo el Prefacio vskip- parskip tenpoint noindent hang hangafter-2 smash < lower12pt hbox to 0pt < hskip- hangindent cmman G hfill >> hskip-16pt < sc ENERATION> < sc OF> < sc LETTERFORMS> strut por medios matemáticos se probó por primera vez en el siglo XV y se hizo popular en el siglos XVI y XVII y fue abandonado (por buenas razones) durante el siglo XVIII. Quizás el siglo XX sea el momento adecuado para que esta idea regrese, ahora que las matemáticas han avanzado y las computadoras pueden hacer los cálculos. Los equipos de impresión modernos basados ​​en líneas rasterizadas, en las que el `` tipo '' metálico ha sido reemplazado por patrones puramente combinatorios de ceros y unos que especifican la posición deseada de la tinta de manera discreta, hacen que las matemáticas y la informática sean cada vez más relevantes. a la impresión. Ahora tenemos la capacidad de dar una definición completamente precisa de las formas de las letras que producirán resultados esencialmente equivalentes en todas las máquinas basadas en ráster. Además, las formas se pueden definir en términos de parámetros variables que las computadoras pueden `` dibujar '' nuevas fuentes de caracteres en segundos, lo que permite a los diseñadores realizar valiosos experimentos que antes eran impensables. MF es un sistema para el diseño de alfabetos adecuado para dispositivos basados ​​en raster que imprimen o muestran texto. Todos los personajes que está leyendo fueron diseñados con MF !, de una manera completamente precisa y fueron desarrollados apresuradamente por el autor del sistema, quien es un aficionado de rango en tales cosas. Parece claro que seguir trabajando con MF tiene el potencial de producir tipos de letra real ^. Este manual ha sido escrito para personas que deseen ayudar a avanzar en el arte del diseño de tipos matemáticos. Un diseñador de tipografías de primer nivel debe tener un ojo excepcionalmente bueno y una sensibilidad altamente desarrollada a los matices de las formas. Un usuario de primer nivel de lenguajes informáticos debe tener un talento inusual para el razonamiento abstracto y una capacidad altamente desarrollada para expresar ideas intuitivas en términos formales. Muy pocas personas tienen estas dos combinaciones inusuales de habilidades, por lo que los mejores productos de MF probablemente serán los esfuerzos de colaboración entre dos personas que complementan las habilidades de la otra. De hecho, esta situación no es muy diferente de la forma en que se han creado los tipos durante muchas generaciones, excepto que el papel de `` punzón-cortador '' lo juegan ahora especialistas en informática calificados en lugar de trabajadores metalúrgicos calificados. Un usuario MF escribe un `` programa '' para cada letra o símbolo de un tipo de letra. Estos programas son diferentes de los programas de computadora ordinarios, porque son esencialmente < sl declarativos /> en lugar de imperativos. En el lenguaje MF , usted explica dónde se ubicarán los componentes principales de una forma deseada y cómo se relacionan entre sí, pero no tiene que resolver los detalles de exactamente dónde se cruzan las líneas, etc. la computadora asume el trabajo de resolver ecuaciones mientras deduce las consecuencias de sus especificaciones. Una de las ventajas de MF es que proporciona una disciplina según la cual se pueden establecer con precisión los principios de un diseño alfabético particular. La inteligencia subyacente no permanece oculta en la mente del diseñador, se explica en los programas. Por lo tanto, la coherencia se puede obtener fácilmente donde la coherencia es deseable, y una fuente se puede ampliar fácilmente a nuevos símbolos que sean compatibles con los existentes. Sería bueno que un sistema como MF simplificara la tarea de diseño de tipos hasta el punto en que pudieran crearse nuevos y hermosos alfabetos en unas pocas horas. Esto, lamentablemente, es imposible. Hay una enorme cantidad de sutileza detrás de las formas de letras aparentemente simples que vemos todos los días, y los diseñadores de tipos de letra de alta calidad han hecho su trabajo tan bien que no notamos la complejidad subyacente. Una de las desventajas de MF es que una persona puede usarlo fácilmente para producir alfabetos pobres, de forma económica y en grandes cantidades. Esperemos que tales experimentos tengan valor educativo, ya que revelan por qué los trucos sutiles del oficio son importantes, pero también esperemos que no provoquen la proliferación de la mala mano de obra. Cualquiera puede ahora producir un libro en el que todo el tipo sea hecho en casa, pero una persona o equipo de personas debería esperar pasar un año o más en el proyecto si se supone que el tipo realmente se ve bien. MF no dejará sin trabajo a los diseñadores tipográficos actuales, al contrario, tenderá a convertirlos en héroes y heroínas, a medida que más y más personas lleguen a apreciar sus habilidades. Aunque no existe un camino real para el diseño tipográfico, hay algunas cosas que, de hecho, se pueden hacer bien con MF en una tarde. Los diseños geométricos son bastante fáciles y no lleva mucho tiempo hacer modificaciones a letras o símbolos que se han expresado previamente en forma MF . Por lo tanto, aunque comparativamente pocos usuarios de MF tendrán el coraje de hacer un alfabeto completo desde cero, habrá muchos que disfrutarán personalizando el diseño de otra persona. Este libro no es un texto sobre matemáticas o sobre computadoras. Pero si conoce los rudimentos de esas materias (es decir, matemáticas contemporáneas de la escuela secundaria, junto con el conocimiento de cómo usar la edición de texto o las instalaciones de procesamiento de texto en su máquina de computación), debería poder usar MF con poca dificultad después de leer lo que sigue. Sin embargo, algunas partes de la exposición en el texto son más oscuras que otras, ya que el autor ha tratado de satisfacer tanto a los principiantes como a los usuarios ocasionales con un solo manual. Por lo tanto, se ha utilizado un símbolo especial para advertir sobre lo esotérico: cuando vea el signo $ vbox < hbox < dbend> vskip 11pt> $ al comienzo de un párrafo, tenga cuidado con un `` ^'' en la línea de pensamiento --- no lea un párrafo así a menos que sea necesario. Podrá usar MF razonablemente bien, incluso para diseñar caracteres como el símbolo de curva peligrosa en sí, sin leer la letra pequeña en secciones tan avanzadas. Algunos de los párrafos de este manual están tan lejos que están clasificados como $ vcenter < hbox < dbend kern1pt dbend> vskip 11pt> $. Probablemente debería tener al menos un mes de experiencia con MF antes de intentar comprender las profundidades doblemente peligrosas del sistema, de hecho, la mayoría de las personas nunca necesitarán conocer MF con tanto detalle, incluso si lo usan todos los días. . Después de todo, es posible freír un huevo sin saber nada de bioquímica. Sin embargo, toda la historia está aquí en caso de que sienta curiosidad. (Acerca de MF !, no huevos.) La razón de niveles tan diferentes de complejidad es que las personas cambian a medida que se acostumbran a cualquier herramienta poderosa. Cuando intente usar MF ! Por primera vez, encontrará que algunas partes son muy fáciles, mientras que otras cosas le costará acostumbrarse. Al principio, probablemente tratará de controlar las formas de manera demasiado rígida, especificando en exceso los datos que se han copiado de algún otro medio. Pero más tarde, una vez que haya comenzado a tener una idea de lo que la máquina puede hacer bien, será una persona diferente y estará dispuesto a permitir que MF le ayude a contribuir a sus diseños a medida que se desarrollan. A medida que gane más y más experiencia trabajando con este aprendiz inusual, su perspectiva seguirá cambiando y se encontrará con diferentes tipos de desafíos. Así es con cualquier herramienta poderosa: siempre hay más que aprender y siempre hay mejores formas de hacer lo que ha hecho antes. En cada etapa del desarrollo, querrá un tipo de manual ligeramente diferente. Incluso puede que desee escribir uno usted mismo. Si presta atención a las señales de curvas peligrosas de este libro, podrá concentrarse mejor en el nivel que le interese en un momento determinado. Los manuales de sistemas informáticos suelen ser una lectura aburrida, pero anímate: este contiene < sc ^> de vez en cuando. Puede que disfrutes leyéndolo. (Sin embargo, la mayoría de los chistes solo se pueden apreciar correctamente si comprendes un punto técnico que se está haciendo, así que lee < sl detenidamente>). Otra característica notable de este libro es que no siempre dice la ^. Cuando ciertos conceptos de MF se introducen de manera informal, las reglas generales se establecerán después, encontrará que las reglas no son estrictamente verdaderas. En general, los capítulos posteriores contienen información más confiable que los anteriores. El autor cree que esta técnica de mentir deliberadamente le facilitará el aprendizaje de las ideas. Una vez que comprenda una regla simple pero falsa, no será difícil complementar esa regla con sus excepciones. Para ayudarte a internalizar lo que estás leyendo, < sc ^> se esparcen a través de este manual. En general, se pretende que todos los lectores prueben todos los ejercicios, excepto las preguntas que aparecen en las áreas de `` curvas peligrosas ''. Si no puede resolver un problema, siempre puede buscar la respuesta. Pero, por favor, primero intente resolverlo usted mismo, luego aprenderá más y aprenderá más rápido. Además, si cree que conoce la solución, debe consultar el Apéndice.

A y compruébalo, solo para asegurarte. bigskip hrule line < vrule hss vbox < medskip ninepoint leftskip = parindent rightskip = parindent noindent strut W < sc ARNING>: El diseño de tipos puede ser peligroso para sus otros intereses. Una vez que te enganches, desarrollarás sentimientos intensos sobre las formas de las letras que el medio inmiscuirá en los mensajes que leas. Y siempre estará pensando en mejorar las fuentes que ve en todas partes, especialmente las de su propio diseño. strut medskip> hss vrule> hrule bigskip El lenguaje MF descrito aquí tiene muy poco en común con el intento anterior del autor de un lenguaje para el diseño alfabético, porque cinco años de experiencia con el antiguo sistema lo han hecho claro que es preferible un enfoque completamente diferente. Ambos lenguajes se han llamado MF pero de ahora en adelante el lenguaje antiguo debería llamarse MF kern.05em79, y su uso debería desaparecer rápidamente. Conservemos el nombre MF para el idioma que se describe aquí, ya que es mucho mejor y nunca volverá a cambiar. ^^ Deseo agradecer a los cientos de personas que me han ayudado a formular esta `` edición definitiva '' de MF !, en base a sus experiencias con versiones preliminares del sistema. En particular, John ^ descubrió muchos de los algoritmos que han hecho posible el nuevo lenguaje. Mi trabajo en Stanford ha sido apoyado generosamente por ^, el ^, el ^y el ^. También deseo agradecer al ^ por su estímulo y por publicar el < sl ^ /> boletín (ver Apéndice

J null). Sobre todo, agradezco profundamente a mi esposa, Jill, por la inspiración ^^ comprensión, consuelo y apoyo que me ha brindado durante más de 25

años, especialmente durante los ocho años que he estado trabajando intensamente en tipografía matemática. medskip line << sl Stanford, California> hfil --- D. E. K.> ^^ line < sl Septiembre 1985 hfil >>% fin del topskip endcapítulo especial Se espera que la Justicia Divina encuentre alguna aflicción adecuada para los malhechores que inventan variaciones sobre el alfabeto de nuestros padres.

. thinspace. thinspace. El fundador de la tipografía, digno mecánico, se ha afirmado con una individualidad que eclipsa, desfigurando con sus monstruosas creaciones y revive todas las publicaciones del país. autor AMBROSE ^, < sl The Opinionator.

Alphab ^ etes />% (1911)% vol 10 de sus obras completas, p69% probablemente escrito originalmente en 1898 o 1899 bigskip ¿Puede el nuevo proceso producir un resultado que, digamos, un Club de Bibliófilos reconocería como una obra? de arte comparable a los libros selectos que tienen en sus gabinetes? autor STANLEY ^, < sl Diseño tipográfico en relación con la composición fotográfica /> (1958)% pp 4--5 eject% the table of contents titlepage vbox to 8pc < rightline < titlefont Contents> vfill> ^^ def rhead tenpoint begingroup countdef counter = 255 def diamondleaders < global advance counter por 1 ifodd counter kern-10pt fi Leaders hbox a 20pt < ifodd counter kern13pt else kern3pt fi. hss >> baselineskip 15pt más 5pt def # 1. # 2. # 3. < Line < strut hbox a parindent < bf hbox a 1em < hss # 1> hss>% rm # 2 diamondleaders hfil hbox a 2em < hss # 3 >> > 1. El nombre del juego. 1. 2. Coordenadas. 5. 3. Curvas. 13. 4. Plumas. 21. 5. Ejecutando MF ! Null. 31. 6. Cómo MF lee lo que escribe. 49. 7. Variables. 53. 8. Expresiones algebraicas. 59. 9. Ecuaciones. 75. 10. Asignaciones. 87. 11. Ampliación y resolución. 91. 12. Cajas 101. 13. Dibujar, rellenar y borrar. 109. 14. Caminos. 123. 15. Transformaciones. 141. 16. Efectos caligráficos. 147. 17. Agrupamiento. 155. 18. Definiciones (también llamadas macros). 159. 19. Condiciones y bucles. 169. 20. Más sobre macros. 175. 21. Números al azar. 183. 22. Instrumentos de cuerda. 187. 23. Pantallas en línea. 191. eject vbox a 8pc <> 24. Discreción y discreción. 195. 25. Resumen de expresiones. 209. 26. Resumen del idioma. 217. 27. Recuperación de errores. 223. null leftline < indent bf Apéndices> A. Respuestas a todos los ejercicios. 233. B. Operaciones básicas. 257. C. Códigos de caracteres. 281. D. Trucos sucios. 285. E. Ejemplos. 301. F. Información de métricas de fuentes. 315. G. Archivos de fuentes genéricos. 323. H. Pruebas en papel. 327. Me salto 1 punto. Índice. 345. J hskip 1pt. Unirse a la comunidad TeX . 361. null% 17 líneas hasta ahora para equilibrar las 23 en la otra página null% 18 null% 19 null% 20 null% 21 null% 22 null% 23 eject endgroup beginchapter Capítulo 1. The Name of the Game pageno = 1% Esta es la página número 1, número 1, Este es un libro sobre un sistema informático llamado MF !, kern1pt tal como kern-1pt < sl El libro TeX /> se trata de TeX. MF y TeX son buenos amigos que tienen la intención de vivir juntos durante mucho tiempo. Entre ellos se encargan de las dos tareas más fundamentales de la composición tipográfica: TeX coloca los caracteres en las posiciones adecuadas en una página, mientras que MF determina las formas de los propios caracteres. ^^ ^^ ¿Por qué el sistema se llama MF thinspace? La parte `- < manual FONT> thinspace 'es fácil de entender, porque los conjuntos de caracteres relacionados que se utilizan en la composición tipográfica se conocen tradicionalmente como fuentes de tipo. La parte `< manual META> - 'es más interesante: indica que estamos interesados ​​en hacer descripciones de alto nivel que trasciendan cualquiera de las fuentes individuales que se describen. Las palabras recién acuñadas que comienzan con 'meta-' generalmente reflejan nuestra inclinación contemporánea a ver las cosas desde afuera o desde arriba, a un nivel más abstracto que antes, con lo que sentimos es una comprensión más madura. Ahora tenemos la metapsicología (el estudio de cómo la mente se relaciona con el cuerpo que la contiene), la metahistoria (el estudio de los principios que controlan el curso de los eventos), la metamatemática (el estudio del razonamiento matemático), la metaficción (obras literarias que reconocen explícitamente sus propios intereses). formularios), y así sucesivamente. Un metamatemático demuestra metateoremas (teoremas sobre teoremas). Un científico de la computación a menudo trabaja con metalenguajes (lenguajes para describir lenguajes). Del mismo modo, un ^ es una descripción esquemática de las formas en una familia de fuentes relacionadas, las formas de las letras cambian apropiadamente a medida que cambian sus parámetros subyacentes. El metadiseño es mucho más difícil que el diseño. Es más fácil dibujar algo que explicar cómo dibujarlo. Uno de los problemas es que no es fácil imaginar diferentes conjuntos de especificaciones potenciales de una sola vez. Otra es que a una computadora hay que contarle absolutamente todo. Sin embargo, una vez que hayamos explicado con éxito cómo dibujar algo de una manera suficientemente general, la misma explicación funcionará para formas relacionadas, en diferentes circunstancias, por lo que

el tiempo dedicado a formular una explicación precisa resulta merecer la pena. Los tipos de letra destinados a texto normalmente se ven pequeños y nuestros ojos pueden leerlos mejor cuando las letras se han diseñado específicamente para el tamaño en el que se utilizan realmente. Aunque es tentador obtener fuentes de 7 puntos simplemente haciendo una reducción del 70 \% del tamaño de 10 puntos, este atajo conduce a una seria degradación de la calidad. Se pueden obtener resultados mucho mejores incorporando variaciones paramétricas en un meta-diseño. De hecho, la variabilidad incorporada tiene ventajas incluso cuando desea producir solo una fuente de tipo en un solo tamaño, porque le permite posponer la toma de decisiones sobre muchos aspectos de su diseño. Si deja ciertas cosas sin definir, tratándolas como parámetros en lugar de `` congelar '' las especificaciones en una etapa temprana, la computadora podrá dibujar muchos ejemplos con diferentes configuraciones de los parámetros, y podrá ver la resultados de todos esos experimentos en el tamaño final. Esto aumentará en gran medida su capacidad para editar y ajustar la fuente. Si las metafuentes son mucho mejores que las viejas fuentes ordinarias, ¿por qué no se desarrollaron hace mucho tiempo? La razón principal es que las computadoras no existían hasta hace poco. A las personas les resulta difícil y aburrido realizar cálculos con una multiplicidad de parámetros, mientras que las máquinas de hoy hacen este tipo de tareas con facilidad. La introducción de parámetros es una consecuencia natural de la automatización. Bien, concedamos que las metafuentes suenan bien, al menos en teoría. Todavía existe el problema práctico de cómo lograrlos. ¿Cómo podemos realmente especificar formas que dependen de parámetros no especificados? Si solo varía un parámetro, es bastante fácil resolver el problema de forma visual, superponiendo una serie de dibujos que muestran gráficamente cómo cambia la forma. Por ejemplo, si el parámetro varía de 0 a

1, podríamos preparar cinco bocetos, correspondientes a los valores de parámetro 0, $ 1 over4 $, $ 1 over2 $, $ 3 over4 $ y

1. Si estos bocetos siguen un patrón consistente, podemos ^ para encontrar la forma de un valor como

$ 2 over3 $ que se encuentra entre dos de los dados. Incluso podríamos intentar extrapolar a valores de parámetros como 1 $ 1 over4 $. Pero si hay dos o más parámetros independientes, una solución puramente visual se vuelve demasiado engorrosa. Debemos ir a un enfoque verbal, utilizando algún tipo de lenguaje para describir los dibujos deseados. Imaginemos, por ejemplo, que queremos explicar la forma de una determinada letra 'a' a un amigo en un país lejano, utilizando solo un teléfono para la comunicación, se supone que nuestro amigo puede reconstruir exactamente la forma que tenemos en mente. . Once we figure out a sufficiently natural way to do that, for a particular fixed shape, it isn't much of a trick to go further and make our verbal description more general, by including variable parameters instead of restricting ourselves to constants. An analogy to cooking might make this point clearer. Suppose you have just baked a delicious berry pie, and your friends ask you to tell them the ^ so that they can bake one too. If you have developed your cooking skills entirely by intuition, you might find it difficult to record exactly what you did. But there is a traditional language of recipes in which you could communicate the steps you followed and if you take careful measurements, you might find that you used, say, 1$1over4$ cups of sugar. The next step, if you were instructing a computer-controlled cooking machine, would be to go to a meta-recipe in which you use, say, $.25x$ cups of sugar for $x$ cups of berries or $.3x+.2y$ cups for $x$

cups of boysenberries and $y$

cups of blackberries. In other words, going from design to meta-design is essentially like going from arithmetic to elementary algebra. Numbers are replaced by simple formulas that involve unknown quantities. We will see many examples of this. A MF definition of a complete typeface generally consists of three main parts. First there is a rather mundane set of subroutines that take care of necessary administrative details, such as assigning code numbers to individual characters each character must also be positioned properly inside an invisible ``box,'' so that typesetting systems will produce the correct spacing. Next comes a more interesting collection of subroutines, designed to draw the basic strokes characteristic of the typeface (e.g., the serifs, bowls, arms, arches, and so on). These subroutines will typically be described in terms of their own special parameters, so that they can produce a variety of related strokes a serif subroutine will, for example, be able to draw serifs of different lengths, although all of the serifs it draws should have the same ``feeling.'' Finally, there are routines for each of the characters. If the subroutines in the first and second parts have been chosen well, the routines of the third part will be fairly high-level descriptions that don't concern themselves unnecessarily with details for example, it may be possible to substitute a different serif-drawing subroutine without changing any of the programs that use that subroutine, thereby obtaining a typeface of quite a different flavor. [A particularly striking example of this approach has been worked out by John

D. ^ and ^ Guoan in ``A Chinese Meta-Font,'' (1984), 119--136. By changing a set of 13 basic stroke subroutines, they were able to draw 128 sample ^ in three different styles (Song, Long Song, and Bold), using the same programs for the characters.] A well-written MF program will express the designer's intentions more clearly than mere drawings ever can, because the language of algebra has simple ``idioms'' that make it possible to elucidate many visual relationships. Thus, MF programs can be used to communicate knowledge about type design, just as recipes convey the expertise of a chef. But algebraic formulas are not easy to understand in isolation MF descriptions are meant to be read with an accompanying illustration, just as the constructions in geometry textbooks are accompanied by diagrams. Nobody is ever expected to read the text of a MF program and say, ``Ah, what a beautiful letter!'' But with one or more enlarged pictures of the letter, based on one or more settings of the parameters, a reader of the MF program should be able to say, ``Ah, I

understand how this beautiful letter was drawn!'' We shall see that the MF system makes it fairly easy to obtain annotated proof drawings that you can hold in your hand as you are working with a program. Although MF is intended to provide a relatively painless way to describe meta-fonts, you can, of course, use it also to describe unvarying shapes that have no ``meta-ness'' at all. Indeed, you need not even use it to produce fonts the system will happily draw geometric designs that have no relation to the characters or glyphs of any alphabet or script. The author occasionally uses MF simply as a pocket calculator, to do elementary arithmetic in an interactive way. A computer doesn't mind if its programs are put to purposes that don't match their names. endchapter [Tinguely] made some large, brightly coloured open reliefs, juxtaposing stationary and mobile shapes. He later gave them names like/ % < m Meta-^>kern-1pt and/ < m Meta-^>kern-.5pt, to clarify the ideas and attitudes % that lay at the root of their conception. author K. G. PONTUS ^, : M'eta/> (1972) % translated from German by Mary Whittall, 1975, p46 igskip The idea of a meta-font should now be clear. But what good is it? The ability to manipulate lots of parameters may be interesting and fun, but does anybody really need a 6/kern1pt-point font that is one fourth of the way between Baskerville and Helvetica? author DONALD E. ^, (1982) % Visible Language 16, p19 eject eginchapter Chapter 2. Coordinates If we want to tell a computer how to draw a particular shape, we need a way to explain where the key points of that shape are supposed to be. MF uses standard ^/> for this purpose: The location of a point is defined by specifying its $x$

coordinate, which is the number of units to the right of some reference point, and its $y$

coordinate, which is the number of units upward from the reference point. First we determine the horizontal (left/right) component of a point's position, then we determine the vertical (up/down) component. MF's world is two-dimensional, so two coordinates are enough.% ^^ ^^ For example, let's consider the following six points: displayfig 2a (4.75pc) MF's names for the positions of these points are egindisplay $(x_1,y_1)=(0,100)$(x_2,y_2)=(100,100)$(x_3,y_3)=(200,100)$cr $(x_4,y_4)=(0,hfill0)$(x_5,y_5)=(100,hfill0) $(x_6,y_6)=(200,hfill0)$.cr enddisplay Point 4 is the same as the reference point, since both of its coordinates are zero to get to point

$3=(200,100)$, you start at the reference point and go 200

up and so on. exercise Which of the six example points is closest to the point $(60,30)$? answer Point $5=(100,0)$ is closer than any of the others. (See the diagram below.) exercise True or false: All points that lie on a given horizontal straight line have the same $x$

coordinate. answer decreasehsize 15pc ightfig A2a (13pc x 5pc) ^9pt False. But they all do have the same $y$

coordinate. exercise Explain where the point $(-5,15)$ is located. answer 5 units to the of the reference point, and 15 units up. exercise What are the coordinates of a point that lies exactly 60

6 in the diagram above? (``Below'' means ``down the page,'' not ``under the page.'') answer estorehsize $(200,-60)$. In a typical application of MF!, you prepare a rough sketch of the shape you plan to define, on a piece of ^, and you label important points on that sketch with any convenient numbers. Then you write a MF program that explains (i)

the coordinates of those key points, and (ii)

the lines or curves that are supposed to go between them. MF has its own internal graph paper, which forms a so-called ^ or ^ consisting of square ``^.'' ^^ The output of MF will hbox that certain of the pixels are ``black'' and that the others are ``white'' thus, the computer essentially converts shapes into binary patterns like the designs a

person can make when doing needlepoint with two colors of yarn. Coordinates are lengths, but we haven't discussed yet what the units of length actually are. It's important to choose convenient units, and MF's coordinates are given in units of pixels. The little squares illustrated on the previous page, which correspond to differences of 10

coordinate, therefore represent $10 imes10$ arrays of pixels, and the rectangle enclosed by our six example points contains 20,000 pixels altogether.footnote* Coordinates don't have to be whole numbers. You can refer, for example, to point $(31.5,42.5)$, which lies smack in the middle of the pixel whose corners are at $(31,42)$, $(31,43)$, $(32,42)$, and

$(32,43)$. The computer works internally with coordinates that are integer multiples of $<1over65536>approx0.00002$ of the width of a pixel, so it is capable of making very fine distinctions. But MF will never make a pixel half black it's all or nothing, as far as the output is concerned. The fineness of a grid is usually called its >, and resolution is usually expressed in pixel units per inch (in America) or pixel units per millimeter (elsewhere). For example, the type you are now reading was prepared by MF with a resolution of slightly more than 700 pixels to the inch, but with slightly fewer than 30 pixels per

mm. For the time being we shall assume that the pixels are so tiny that the operation of rounding to whole pixels is unimportant later we will consider the important questions that arise when MF is producing low-resolution output. It's usually desirable to write MF programs that can manufacture fonts at many different resolutions, so that a variety of low-resolution printing devices will be able to make proofs that are compatible with a variety of high-resolution devices. Therefore the key points in MF programs are rarely specified in terms of pure numbers like `100' hinspace we generally make the coordinates relative to some other resolution-dependent quantity, so that changes will be easy to make. For example, it would have been better to use a definition something like the following, for the six points considered earlier: egindisplay $(x_1,y_1)=(0,b)$(x_2,y_2)=(a,b)$(x_3,y_3)=(2a,b)$cr $(x_4,y_4)=(0,0)$(x_5,y_5)=(a,0)$(x_6,y_6)=(2a,0)$cr enddisplay then the quantities $a$ and $b$ can be defined in some way appropriate to the desired resolution. We had $a=b=100$ in our previous example, but such constant values leave us with little or no flexibility. Notice the quantity `$2a

How Do I Choose the Right RV?

There are literally hundreds of options when it comes to buying a recreational vehicle. So much so that it can become completely overwhelming.

You’ve probably asked yourself more than once in frustration… “how do I choose the right RV?” and here’s what we recommend: The best way to start the process of choosing an RV is by attending an RV show. You will be able to browse dozens of different models and types of RVs. At the same time, you will be avoiding any high pressure sales tactics and be free to take your time to inspect all the pros and cons of each vehicle.

Once you’ve narrowed down your list to a few different models you can see working for your situation, then you can go and start talking to dealers, taking test drives and negotiating prices.

Keep reading to hear from Bryce and how his family chose the right RV for their family. There’s some great tips and advice you can learn from their experience!

Bryce will take over the article from here…

Our epic RV trip began like any other crazy idea: standing in our kitchen late at night with a glass of wine.

“I want to take a trip”, my wife declared.

“Great!” I replied enthusiastically, “what are you thinking, a couple of weeks?”

“No, I was thinking 3 months.”

My wife is an Engineer, super-organized and a meticulous planner, so coming from her this was huge. And it only took a second for me to agree: Yes. I’m in.

We were at a rare moment in our life, having worked for over 20 years we would soon be in-between jobs. Our daughters were 11 years old, not yet parent-adverse teenagers and their schedules were still flexible. We both knew this chance might not come again. So we leaped at the idea and by summer’s end we would be looking back on 12,000 miles of RV driving, and one of the greatest experiences of our lives.

Finding Betsy – We were starting from scratch, we don’t even own a pick-up truck, let alone an entire house on wheels. So, where to begin? It turns out, it’s not as daunting as we first thought. Here’s how we went about finding Betsy, our 32-foot family member. (And yes, give your RV a name!)

RV Shows – If you’re like us and know nothing about RVs, consider attending a large RV show. We found it to be a great way to get the lay of the land (without the heavy sales pitches). You will see every RV and trailer type you can imagine, and some you can’t. From Vintage to modern, from extra-large to tiny, they are all there.

You can walk inside the RVs, sit down, lay down, and begin to imagine how the space might work for you. Our kids came along and had a blast exploring the different RVs. If you’re traveling as a family, having children be a part of the planning and decision process is important. It will empower them and give them a sense of ownership.

RV shows also have classes and camping-related vendors that can share great tips and stories of life on the road. We walked away feeling less overwhelmed and better informed. You will too.

Which RV is Best for Us?

Choosing the right RV will depend on several personal and logistical factors. And at 32 feet, Betsy was on the longer side. We are a family of four with two 11-year-olds and planned to travel for three months, with lots of driving. Our goal was to see as much of the country as we could in the time we had, only spending about 2 days in each spot.

We also wanted enough room to enjoy dinner and games as a family, and have corners where we could retreat when needed (for that nap or mental refresher).

Begin by asking yourself: How long will we be traveling- a week or two, or is it a longer, sustained trip? Are we planning to drive frequently, or will we park the RV in a campground and take trips from there? How much space do we need? Are we driving or towing? Do we have a truck already that we can use to tow a travel trailer or fifth wheel? What is our driving comfort level?

Furthermore, how will this feel for our family after 30, 60, 90 days of continuous travel? Is there room for playing games on a rainy day? Are we taking a lot of gear, in addition to the basic load of clothes, food, and sundries? What is our budget, and should we buy or rent?

RV Types – The Basics

Class A:

Larger/spacious RVs, typically diesel engines, and generally higher price tags. These vehicles are more akin to driving a bus- you are seated up high, with good road visibility, and are (many feel) safer in a larger rig. But if you’re new to trucks and RVs, it may take a little more practice to get the feel of driving. And you may need a separate car/vehicle to get around, especially in the National Parks where vehicle size is often limited to 25 feet or less.

Class B:

This is your camper-van, is very comfortable and has a familiar cab and operation. Mid-range price point, but you will have less room inside to maneuver. Class Bs can be great for a couple or small family on the go. And the size allows you to drive into the National Parks without the need for a second vehicle (height dependent!).

Class C:

This is our beloved Betsy. A Class C is basically a large pick-up truck chassis with a camper on the back. (They are built separately and mated at the factory.) At first, it feels like you’re driving a pick-up truck with an elephant in the back. But, like anything, you get used to it and will soon be driving like a pro. You are also seated closer to a regular car level and the pick-up truck cab feels very comfortable.

Our Honda CR-V tow vehicle gave us even more freedom to explore!

We found Betsy offered our family of four the amount of space we needed for three months, and she felt comfortable while driving. However, we did trade-in one of our cars for a towable Honda CR-V as a get around car. Great investment for all of those fun (often unplanned) side trips and for navigating the National Parks where vehicle size is often limited.

“Towing a car turned out to be not as hard as we first thought.”

Travel Trailer:

These come in any size, from tiny to huge, and offer a very wide range of options for individuals and families. With a travel trailer, your money will go further and if you already own a capable towing vehicle (Truck or SUV), you’re even further ahead still.

Smaller trailers offer simple living with a bed/storage inside and an outdoor kitchen, with various canopy options. A good hybrid if you want to eat outside but still sleep on a dry mattress. Larger trailers offer the same space options as RVs, but for much less money. (Though you will need a large truck to tow them, so consider that purchase, too.)

Fifth Wheel:

Larger, with similar space options to RVs, but will require a larger truck to tow. But if you already own that larger truck, this may be a great option. As with any trailer, you can park it at camp and use your truck to run around.

What Size RV?

This depends. How many are you and how long will you be traveling? Will the RV be parked most of the time, or on the road a lot? And can your kids share a bed?

Sleeping arrangement is a big question. For us, bunk beds were ideal. We wanted the kids to have their own beds that would not fold away. This way they could leave their belongings spread out, like their own little room. Bunkhouse options do require a longer RV, typically 30 feet+. We found our 32-foot Class C Jayco Greyhawk with bunk beds, a kitchenette, and a dining area suited us perfectly.

Buying Vs Renting

My Engineer spouse does not make any large purchase without a spreadsheet, and we did an extensive evaluation of buying versus renting. Here is what we found.

Buying: Overall, if you’re going to keep your RV/trailer for a long time (say 5-10 years) then consider a new/newer model for longevity. You will pay more upfront, but reap the benefits long-term. However, if you’re like us and planning to use it for one epic trip and then resell, definitely consider a used vehicle. We found a 3 or 4-year-old model fit the price point we needed, and would hold its resale value afterward.

Renting: If you’re planning to travel for a shorter time, maybe up to six weeks, consider renting. There are numerous rental companies and private RV rental sites to choose from. We briefly considered this but found that for three months, it was more cost-effective to buy a used RV and resell. But each family has to make their own choice based on their goals, space needs, and finances.

Renting can also be a great way to learn the ropes and discover what will work best for your family before taking that big trip. We were amazed at the number of families visiting from other countries who rented their RVs. You can literally fly-in from anywhere, pick up your vehicle, go for a few weeks, then turn it back in. Brilliant!

New to Driving an RV?

Not to worry. Each RV/trailer type drives a little differently but once you gain some experience, you’ll be driving like a pro. Betsy was white-knuckle driving at first, but our confidence increased over the miles. Yours will too.

Consider driving around your local area at first, increasing your range as you gain confidence. Stay at a nearby RV park to test its systems before you head out, far easier to learn on a sunny afternoon than at night in the rain after driving all day!

Totally Worth It

Our advice: Go for it. We had a rich and meaningful experience, with all of the highs and lows that come with family life on the road. But we would not trade it for anything. Instead of buying a mid-life sports car, we found Betsy and never looked back. And when we returned, we sold Betsy to a family of four heading out on their own epic adventure.

It was an emotional day for all of us, but we felt good knowing Betsy would travel on and serve them well.

I leave you with our family’s favorite trip quote:

“Travel is the only thing you buy which makes you richer.”


Religious Christian Christmas Activities for the Classroom

Religious Christmas Worksheets and Printables
Worksheets include a word jumble, word search and placing vocabulary words in alphabetical order. Vocabulary word manipulatives are printable as well.

Also see a collection of Christmas printables that can be personalized - match games, bingo, word twists, rhymes, cryptograms, drawing pages, trivia and more!

Shhhh. Amazon Secret Sale ! (unadvertised discounts)
Items are sorted by ages and categories. Incluye Pájaros enojados, Legos, Barbie, Dora, Leapfrog Learn-to-Read, Webkinz, Transformers and more!

40 - 75% off Toys and Games - Once you get to the secret sale page, use the navigation on the left to find toys on sale by age or brand name. (affiliate link)

40 - 75% off Cameras and Accessories - Once you get to the secret sale page, use the navigation on the left to find cameras on sale by brand name. Some great deals if you shop right! (affiliate link)

Christian Christmas Coloring Pages
Use your interactive crayon to color these Christian symbols of Christmas: Angel with Candle, Baby Jesus in Manger, Baby Jesus, Bible Stories page, Good Tidings Angel, Hark! the Herald Angel, I Love Jesus Balloon, Lamb in Manger, Manger and Star, Mary and Baby Jesus, Mary and Dove, Mary and Jesus, Mother with Child, Dove of Peace, Shepherd, Three Wisemen, Wisemen and King of the Orient Far.

Other activities you may be interested in:

Note: Christmas holiday resources can be found in two separate categories. You will find navigation to both categories on each resource page:

Christmas Fun - Activities that promote the season of hope, love and charity through Santa Claus, St. Nick, and Kris Kringle.

Religious Christian Christmas - Activities more religious in nature to remind us of the reason for the season.


Cost of Living 1931

How Much things cost in 1931
Average Cost of new house $6,790.00
Average wages per year $1,850.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas 10 cents
Average Cost for house rent $18.00 per month
A loaf of Bread 8 cents
A LB of Hamburger Meat 11 cents
Alarm Clock $3.50
New Car Average Price $640.00

Shoulder of Ohio Spring lamb 17 cents per pound Ohio 1932
Dozen Eggs 18 Cents Ohio 1932
Bananas 19 cents for 4 Pounds Ohio 1932
Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling
Average House Price 600


July 9, 2013 Day 171 of the Fifth Year - History

anam.) "There is a tendency to perceive the sensation, &c." And how does he know there is a tendency? By consciousness. The final analysis reads: "There is a consciousness of a tendency to perceive the sensation of a lifting of an arm." He does not, for he cannot, go further back. He will not suppose, on no sort of evidence, the substratum of Atman uniting <247B>consciousness to consciousness by its eternity, while it fixes a great gulf between them by its changelessness. He states the knowable, states it accurately, and leaves it there. But there is a practical application of this analysis which I will treat of later. (See VIII. Mahasatipa"tt"hana.) We are told that the memory is a proof of some real "I." But how treacherous is this ground! Did a past event in my life not happen because I have forgotten it? O the analogy of the river water given above is most valid! I who write this am not I who read it over and correct it. Do I desire to play with lead soldiers? Am I the doddering old cripple who must be wheeled about and fed on whisky and bread and milk? And is my difference from them so conspicuously less than from the body lying dead of which those who see it will say, "This was Aleister Crowley"? What rubbish is it to suppose that an eternal substance, sentient or not, omniscient or not, depends for its information on so absurd a series of bodies as are grouped under that "Crowley"! Yet the Buddhist meets all arguments of the spiritual order with a simple statement which, if not certain, is at least not improbable. There is, he will tell you, a "spiritual" world, or to avoid any (most unjustifiable) misunderstandings, let us say a world of subtler matter than the visible and tangible, which has its own laws (analogous to, if not identical with, those laws of matter with which we are acquainted) and whose inhabitants change, and die, and are re-born very much as ordinary mortal beings. But as they are of subtler matter, their cycle is less rapid. > As a nominalist, I hope not to be misunderstood when I compare this to the relative mutability of the individual and the species. > We have enough examples free <248A>from such possibility of misinterpretation in our own bodies. Compare the longevity of a bone with that of a corpuscle. But it is this "Substratum" universe, which must not be confounded with the substratum, the arguments for whose existence Berkeley so utterly shattered, > which may conserve memory for a period greatly exceeding that of one of its particular avatars. Hence the "Jataka." But the doctrine is not very essential its chief value is to show what serious difficulties confront us, and to supply a reason for the struggle to some better state. For if nothing <248B>survives death, what does it matter to us? Why are we to be so altruistic as to avoid the reincarnation of a being in all points different from ourselves? As the small boy said, "What has posterity done for me?" But something does persist something changing, though less slowly. What evidence have we after all that an animal does not remember his man-incarnation? Or, as Levi says, "In the suns they remember, and in the planets they forget." I think it unlikely (may be), but in the total absence of all evidence for or against -- at least with regard to the latter hypothesis! -- I suspend my judgment, leave the question alone, and proceed to more practical points than are offered by these interesting but not over-useful metaphysical speculations. V. KARMA. The law of causation is formally identical with this. Karma means "that which is made," and I think it should be considered with strict etymological accuracy. If I place a stone on the roof of a house, it is sure to fall sooner or later "i.e.," as soon as the conditions permit. Also, in its ultimation, the doctrine of Karma is identical with determinism. On this subject much wisdom, with an infinite amount of rubbish, has been written. I therefore dismiss it in these few words, confident that the established identity can never be shaken. VI. THE TEN FETTERS OR SANYO"G"ANAS. 1. Sakkaya-di"tt"hi. Belief in a "soul." 2. Vi"k"iki"kk"ha. Doubt. 3. Silabbata-paramasa. Reliance on the efficacy of rites and ceremonies. 4. Kama. Bodily Desires. <249A>5. Patigha. Hatred. 6. Ruparaga. Desire for bodily immortality. 7. Aruparaga. Desire for spiritual immortality. 8. Mano. Pride. 9. Udha"kk"a Self-righteousness. 10. Avi"gg"a. Ignorance. (1) For this is a "petitio principii." (2) This, to a scientist, is apparently anathema. But it only means, I think, that if we are not settled in our minds we cannot work. And this is unquestionable. Suppose a chemist to set to work to determine the boiling-point of a new organic substance. Does he stop in the midst, struck by the fear that his thermometer is inaccurate? ¡No! he has, unless he is a fool, tested it previously. We must have our principia fixed before we can do research work. (3) A scientist hardly requires conviction on this point! (4) Do you think to combine Newton and Caligula? The passions, allowed to dominate, interfere with the concentration of the mind. (5) Does brooding on your dislikes help you to accurate observation? I admit that a controversy may stir you up to perform prodigies of work, but while you are actually working you do not suffer the concentration of your mind to be interfered with. (6&7) This Fetter and the next are contingent on your having perceived the suffering of all forms of conscious existence. (8) Needs no comment. Pride, like humility, is a form of delusion. (9) Is like unto it, but on the moral plane. (10) The great enemy. Theists alone have found the infamous audacity to extol the merits of this badge of servitude. We see, then, that in this classification a scientist will concur. We need not discuss the question whether or no he would find others to add. Buddhism may not be complete, but, as far as it goes, it is accurate. <249B>VII. THE RELATIVE REALITY OF CERTAIN STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Whether we adopt Herbert Spenser's dictum that the primary testimony of consciousness is to the existence of externality, or no > whether or no we fly to the extreme idealistic position there is no question that, to our normal consciousness, things as they present themselves -- apart from obvious illusion, if even we dare to except this -- are undisprovable to the immediate apprehension. Whatever our reason may tell us, we act precisely as though Berkeley had never lived, and the herculean Kant had been strangled while yet in his cradle by the twin serpents of his own perversity and terminology. What criterion shall we apply to the relative realities of normal and dream consciousness? Why do I confidently assert that the dream state is transitory and unreal? In that state I am equally confident that my normal consciousness is invalid. But as my dreams occupy a relatively small portion of my time, and as the law of causation seems suspended, and as their vividness is less than that of normal consciousness, and above all, as in the great majority of cases I can show a cause, dating from my waking hours, for the dream, I have four strong reasons (the first explanatory to some extent of my reasons for accepting the others) for concluding that the dream is fictitious. But what of the "dreamless" state? To the dreamer his normal faculties and memories arise at times, and are regarded as fragmentary and absurd, even as the remembrance of a dream is to the waking man. Can we not conceive then of a "dreamless" life, of <250A>which our dreams are the vague and disturbed transition to normal consciousness? The physiological evidence goes literally for nothing. Even were it proved that the recipio-motor apparatus of a "dreamless" sleeper was relatively quiescent, would that supply any valid argument against the theory I have suggested? Suggested, for I admit that our present position is completely agnostic in respect to it, since we have no evidence which throws light on the matter and study of the subject would appear to be mere waste of time. But the suggestion is valuable as affording us a possibly rational explanation, conformable to the waking man, which the dreamer would indignantly reject. Suppose, however, a dream so vivid that the whole waking man is abased before its memory, that his consciousness of it appears a thousand times more real than that of the things about him suppose that his whole life is moulded to fit the new facts thus revealed to him that he would cheerfully renounce years of normal life to obtain minutes of that dream-life that his time sense is uprooted as never before, and that these influences are permanent. Then, you will say, delirium tremens (and the intoxication of hashish, in respect more particularly of the time sense) afford us a parallel. But the phenomena of delirium tremens do not occur in the healthy. As for the suggestion of auto-hypnosis, the memory of the "dream" is a sufficient reply. However this may be, the simple fact of the superior apparent reality -- a conviction unshakable, "inepuisable" (for the English has no word), is a sufficient test. And if we condescend to argue, it is for pleasure, and aside from the vital fact a skirmish, and not a pitched battle. The "dream" I have thus described is the state called Dhyana by the Hindus and Buddhists. The method of attaining it is sane, healthy, and scientific. I would not take the pains to describe that method, had not illiterate, and too often mystical advocates of the practice obscured the simple <250B>grandeur of our edifice by jimcrack pinnacles of stucco -- as who should hang the Taj Mahal with fairy lamps and chintz. It is simple. The mind is compelled to fix its attention on a single thought while the controlling power is exercised and a profound watchfulness kept up lest the thought should for a moment stray. > The later portion is, to my mind, the essential one. The work is comparable to that of an electrician who should sit for hours with his finger on a delicately adjusted resistance-box and his eye on the spot of light of a galvanometer, charged with the duty of keeping the spot still, at least that it should never move beyond a certain number of degrees, and of recording the more important details of his experiment. Our work is identical in design, though worked with subtler -- if less complex -- means. For the finger on the resistance-box we substitute the Will and its control extends but to the Mind for the eye we substitute the Introspective Faculty with its keen observation of the most minute disturbance, while the spot of light is the Consciousness itself, the central point of the galvanometer scale the predetermined object, and the other figures on the scale, other objects, connected with the primary by order and degree, sometimes obviously, sometimes obscurely, perhaps even untraceably, so that we have no real right to predicate their connection. <251A>How any sane person can describe this process as delusive and unhealthy passes my comprehension that any scientist should do so implies an ignorance on his part of the facts. I may add that the most rigid necessity exists for perfect health of body and mind before this practice can begin asceticism is as sternly discouraged as indulgence. How would the electrician do his work after a Guildhall Banquet? The strain of watching would be too much, and he would go off to sleep. So with the meditator. If, on the other hand, he had been without food for twenty-four-hours, he might -- indeed it has been done often -- perform prodigies of work for the necessary period but a reaction must follow of proportionate severity. Nobody will pretend that the best work is done starving. > Now to such an observer certain phenomena present themselves sooner or later which have the qualities above predicated of our imaginary "dream" preceded by a transition-state very like total loss of consciousness. Are these fatigue phenomena? Is it that this practice for some as yet unknown reason stimulates some special nerve-centre? Perhaps the subject requires investigation I am not a physiologist. Whatever physiology may say, it is at least clear that if this state is accompanied with an intense and passionless bliss beyond anything that the normal man can conceive of, and unaccompanied with the slightest prejudice to the mental and physical health, it is most highly desirable. And to the scientist it presents a magnificent field of research. <251B>Of the metaphysical and religious theories which have been built upon the facts here stated, I have nothing to say in this place. The facts are not at the disposition of all from the nature of the subject each man must be his own witness. I was once twitted by some shallow-pated person with the fact that my position cannot be demonstrated in the laboratory, and that therefore (save the mark!) I must be a mystic, an occultist, a theosophist, a mystery-monger, and what not. I am none of these. The above criticism applies to every psychologist that ever wrote, and to the man who makes the criticism by the fact of his making it. I can only say: "You have your own laboratory and apparatus, your mind and if the room is dirty and the apparatus ill put together, you have certainly not me to blame for it." The facts being of individual importance, then, there is little use if I detail the results of my own experience. And the reason for this reticence -- for I plead guilty to reticence -- that to explain would damage the very apparatus whose use I am advocating. For did I say that such an such a practice leads one to see a blue pig, the suggestion is sufficient to cause one class of people to see a blue pig where none existed, and another to deny or suspect the blue pig when it really appeared, though the latter alternative is unlikely. The consciousness phenomenon, and the bliss, is of so stupendous and well-defined a nature that I cannot imagine any preconceived idea powerful enough to diminish it appreciably. But for the sake of the former class I hold my tongue. > I trust it is now perfectly clear, if my statements are accepted -- and I can only <252A>most seriously assure you that honest laborious experiment will be found to verify them in every particular -- that whatever arguments are brought forward destructive of the reality of Dhyana, apply with far more force to the normal state, and it is evident that to deny the latter seriously is "ipso facto" to become unserious. Whether the normal testimony may be attacked from above, by insisting on the superior reality of Dhyana -- and "a fortiori" of Samadhi, which I have not experienced, and consequently do not treat of, being content to accept the highly probably statements of those who profess to know, and who have so far not deceived me ("i.e." as to Dhyana), is a question which it is not pertinent to the present argument to discuss. I shall, however suggest certain ideas in the following section, in which I propose to discuss the most famous of the Buddhist meditations (Mahasatipa"tth"ana), its method, object, and results. VIII. MAHASATIP"TTH"ANA. This meditation differs fundamentally from the usual Hindu methods by the fact that the mind is not restrained to the contemplation of a single object, and there is no interference with the natural functions of the body as there is, "e.g.", in Pranayama. It is essentially an observation-practice, which later assumes an analytic aspect in regard to the question, "What is it that is really observed?" The Ego-idea is resolutely excluded from the start, and so far Mr. Herbert Spencer will have nothing to object ("Principles of <252B>Psychology," ii, 404). The breathing, motions of walking, &c., are merely observed and recorded for instance, one may sit down quietly and say: "There is an indrawing of the breath." "There is an expiration," &c. Or, walking, "There is a raising of the right foot," and so on, just as it happens. The thought is of course not quick enough to note all the movements or their subtle causes. For example, we cannot describe the complicated muscular contractions, &c. but this is not necessary. Concentrate on some series of simple movements. When this through habit becomes intuitive so that the thought is "really" "There is a raising," as opposed to "I raise" (the later being in reality a complex and adult idea, as philosophers have often shown, ever since Descartes fell into the trap), one may begin to analyse, as explained above, and the second stage is "There is a sensation (Vedana) of a raising, &c." Sensations are further classed as pleasant or unpleasant. When this is the true intuitive instantaneous testimony of consciousness (so that "There is a raising, &c." is rejected as a palpable lie), > we proceed to San

a, perception. "There is a perception of a (pleasant or unpleasant) sensation of a raising, &c." When this has become intuitive -- why! here's a strange result! The emotions of pain and pleasure have vanished. They are subincluded in the lesser skandha of Vedana, and San

a is free from them. And to him who can live in this third state, and live so for ever, there is no more pain only an intense interest similar to that which has enabled men of science to watch and note the progress of their own death-agony. Unfortunately <253A>the living in such a state is conditional on sound mental health, and terminable by disease or death at any moment. Were it not so, the First Noble Truth would be a lie. The two further stages Sankhara and Vin

anam pursue the analysis to its ultimation, "There is a consciousness of a tendency to perceive the (pleasant or unpleasant) sensation of a raising of a right foot" being the final form. And I suppose no psychologist of any standing will quarrel with this. > Reasoning in fact leads us to this analysis the Buddhist goes further only so far as he may be said to knock down the scaffolding of reasoning processes, and to assimilate the actual truth of the matter. It is the difference between the schoolboy who painfully construes "Balbus murum aedificavit," and the Roman who announces that historic fact without a thought of his grammar. I have called this meditation the most famous of the Buddhist meditations, because it is stated by the Buddha himself that if one practises it honestly and intelligently a result is certain. And he says this of no other. I have personally not found time to devote myself seriously to this Mahasatipa"tth"ana, and the statements here made are those derived from reason and not from experience. But I can say that the unreality of the grosser (rupa) relatively to the subtler Vedana and still more subtle San

a becomes rapidly apparent, and I can only conclude that with time and trouble the process would continue. What will occur when one reaches the final stage of Vin


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